Tom, Lord Dracy from A Scandalous Countess was in the navy from age 12, so I'm making notes about 18th century naval matters. I should have read more O'Brien, I suppose.

Adrift -- not there when wanted.
On the beach, beached -- left the navy
Bear up! Keep your chin up.
bilge -- rubbish
chew the fat
Chucker up -- applause, from throwing hats in the air.
copper bottomed -- high quality.
Face like a sea boot. Blank, grim, unattractive
Knock seven bells out of someone -- beat him up
Scrub, to get a reprimand.
Scuppered, killed.
Sewn up -- drunk
shaky -- not right, false, false measure
ship's name, referred to the captain. "Find Haddock" "Find the Haddock" would refer to the ship.
shoot a line, boast
Soft number -- an easy job
splice the mainbrace -- an extra ration of rum
sprog -- new entry
swallow the anchor -- leave the navy for good.